Prosociality and hoarding amid the COVID-19 pandemic : a tale of four countries

Tse, Dwight C. K. and Lau, Vienne W. and Hong, Ying-yi and Bligh, Michelle C. and Kakarika, Maria (2022) Prosociality and hoarding amid the COVID-19 pandemic : a tale of four countries. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 32 (3). pp. 507-520. ISSN 1052-9284 (

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The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented public health crisis that poses a challenge to humanity. Drawing on the stress and coping literature, we argue that people around the world alleviate their anxiety and stress induced by the pandemic through both prosocial and 'self-interested' hoarding behaviours. This cross-cultural survey study examined the pushing (threat perception) and pulling (moral identity) factors that predicted prosocial acts and hoarding, and subsequently psychological well-being. Data were collected from 9 April to 14 May 2020 from 251 participants in the United Kingdom (UK), 268 in the United States (US), 197 in Germany (DE), and 200 in Hong Kong (HK). Whereas threat perception was associated positively with both prosocial acts and hoarding, benevolent moral identity was associated positively with the former but not the latter behaviour. We also observed cross-cultural differences, such that both effects were stronger in more individualistic (UK, US) countries than less individualistic (HK, DE) ones. The findings shed light on the prosocial vs. self-interested behavioural responses of people in different cultures towards the same pandemic crisis.