Synchronization-free top-down illumination photometric stereo imaging using light-emitting diodes and a mobile device

Le Francois, Emma and Herrnsdorf, Johannes and McKendry, Jonathan J. D. and Broadbent, Laurence and Wright, Glynn and Dawson, Martin D. and Strain, Michael J. (2021) Synchronization-free top-down illumination photometric stereo imaging using light-emitting diodes and a mobile device. Optics Express, 29 (2). pp. 1502-1515. ISSN 1094-4087

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    Abstract

    Three dimensional reconstruction of objects using a top-down illumination photometric stereo imaging setup and a hand-held mobile phone device is demonstrated. By employing binary encoded modulation of white light-emitting diodes for scene illumination, this method is compatible with standard lighting infrastructure and can be operated without the need for temporal synchronization of the light sources and camera. The three dimensional reconstruction is robust to unmodulated background light. An error of 2.69 mm is reported for an object imaged at a distance of 42 cm and with the dimensions of 48 mm. We also demonstrate the three dimensional reconstruction of a moving object with an effective off-line reconstruction rate of 25 fps.

    ORCID iDs

    Le Francois, Emma ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5416-5877, Herrnsdorf, Johannes ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3856-5782, McKendry, Jonathan J. D. ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6379-3955, Broadbent, Laurence, Wright, Glynn, Dawson, Martin D. ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6639-2989 and Strain, Michael J. ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9752-3144;