Voltage and current measuring technologies for high voltage direct current supergrids : a technology review identifying the options for protection, fault location and automation applications

Tzelepis, Dimitrios and Psaras, Vasileios and Tsotsopoulou, Eleni and Mirsaeidi, Sohrab and Dyśko, Adam and Hong, Qiteng and Dong, Xinzhou and Blair, Steven M. and Nikolaidis, Vassilis C. and Papaspiliotopoulos, Vasileios and Fusiek, Grzegorz and Burt, Graeme M. and Niewczas, Pawel and Booth, Campbell D. (2020) Voltage and current measuring technologies for high voltage direct current supergrids : a technology review identifying the options for protection, fault location and automation applications. IEEE Access, 8. pp. 203398-203428. ISSN 2169-3536 (https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2020.303590)

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After the occurrence of a DC-side feeder faults on HVDC transmission systems, protection and fault detection systems are anticipated to minimize their onerous effects, by initiating fault-clearing actions such as selective tripping of circuit breakers. Following the successful fault clearance, a subsequent action of significant importance, is the meticulous estimation of its location as a means to accelerate the line restoration, reduce down-time, limit recovery and repair costs, and hence elevate the overall availability and reliability of the transmission system. In order to capture DC-side fault transients for protection and fault location applications, measuring equipment is required to be placed on HVDC installations. This paper focuses primarily on reviewing the available technologies from the perspective of enabling protection, fault location and automation applications in HVDC systems. The review constitutes a mapping of protection and fault location functions, against the available voltage and current measuring technologies, ultimately unlocking insights for selecting measuring equipment based on the desirable characteristics of protection and fault location systems. The review also revealed that the frequency characteristics of each sensing scheme, primarily refers to the bandwidth of the primary sensor, whereas the overall bandwidth of the complete measuring scheme may be further restricted by the secondary converter and corresponding data acquisition system and signal processing electronics. It was also identified that the use of RC voltage dividers has prevailed for voltage measurements for HVDC applications, due to their superior advantages. The choice of a suitable device for current measurement, depends mainly on the fault detection method used and the frequency range it operates. In particular, the review revealed that fault detection and protection methods are mainly concentrated in a frequency spectrum ranging from a few kHz to 100 kHz, while fault location methods require measurements with a frequency range from 100 kHz up to 2 MHz.


Tzelepis, Dimitrios ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4263-7299, Psaras, Vasileios, Tsotsopoulou, Eleni ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9118-3743, Mirsaeidi, Sohrab, Dyśko, Adam ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3658-7566, Hong, Qiteng ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9122-1981, Dong, Xinzhou, Blair, Steven M. ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3261-4803, Nikolaidis, Vassilis C., Papaspiliotopoulos, Vasileios, Fusiek, Grzegorz ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3361-7803, Burt, Graeme M. ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0315-5919, Niewczas, Pawel ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3291-1725 and Booth, Campbell D. ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3869-4477;