Utilising deep learning techniques for effective zero-day attack detection

Hindy, Hanan and Atkinson, Robert and Tachtatzis, Christos and Colin, Jean-Noël and Bayne, Ethan and Bellekens, Xavier (2020) Utilising deep learning techniques for effective zero-day attack detection. Electronics, 9 (10). 1684. ISSN 2079-9292 (https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9101684)

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Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) have been used for building Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). The increase in both the number and sheer variety of new cyber-attacks poses a tremendous challenge for IDS solutions that rely on a database of historical attack signatures. Therefore, the industrial pull for robust IDSs that are capable of flagging zero-day attacks is growing. Current outlier-based zero-day detection research suffers from high false-negative rates, thus limiting their practical use and performance. This paper proposes an autoencoder implementation for detecting zero-day attacks. The aim is to build an IDS model with high recall while keeping the miss rate (false-negatives) to an acceptable minimum. Two well-known IDS datasets are used for evaluation—CICIDS2017 and NSL-KDD. In order to demonstrate the efficacy of our model, we compare its results against a One-Class Support Vector Machine (SVM). The manuscript highlights the performance of a One-Class SVM when zero-day attacks are distinctive from normal behaviour. The proposed model benefits greatly from autoencoders encoding-decoding capabilities. The results show that autoencoders are well-suited at detecting complex zero-day attacks. The results demonstrate a zero-day detection accuracy of 89–99% for the NSL-KDD dataset and 75–98% for the CICIDS2017 dataset. Finally, the paper outlines the observed trade-off between recall and fallout.