Synchronous reference frame interface for geographically distributed real-time simulations

Syed, Mazheruddin H. and Guillo-Sansano, Efren and Blair, Steven M. and Avras, Andreas and Burt, Graeme M. (2020) Synchronous reference frame interface for geographically distributed real-time simulations. IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 14 (23). pp. 5428-5438. ISSN 1751-8695 (

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The increasing complexity of power systems has warranted the development of geographically distributed real-time simulations (GD-RTS). However, the wide scale adoption of GD-RTS remains a challenge owing to the (i) limitations of state-ofthe- A rt interfaces in reproducing faster dynamics and transients, (ii) lack of an approach to ensure a successful implementation within geographically separated research infrastructures (RIs) and (iii) lack of established evidence of its appropriateness for smart grid applications. To address the limitations in reproduction of faster dynamics and transients, this study presents a synchronous reference frame interface for GD-RTS. By means of a comprehensive performance characterisation, the superior performance of the proposed interface in terms of accuracy (reduced error on average by 60% and faster settling times) and computational complexity has been established. This study further derives the transfer function models for GD-RTS with interface characteristics for analytical stability analysis that ensure stable implementations avoiding the risks associated with multiple RI implementations. Finally, to establish confidence in the proposed interface and to investigate GD-RTS applicability for real-world applications, a GD-RTS implementation between two RIs at the University of Strathclyde is realised to demonstrate inertial support within transmission network model of the Great Britain power system.