Making medicines baby size : The challenges in bridging the formulation gap in neonatal medicine

O’Brien, Fiona and Clapham, David and Krysiak, Kamelia and Batchelor, Hannah and Field, Peter and Caivano, Grazia and Pertile, Marisa and Nunn, Anthony and Tuleu, Catherine (2019) Making medicines baby size : The challenges in bridging the formulation gap in neonatal medicine. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20 (11). 2688. ISSN 1661-6596 (

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The development of age-Appropriate formulations should focus on dosage forms that can deliver variable yet accurate doses that are safe and acceptable to the child, are matched to his/her development and ability, and avoid medication errors. However, in the past decade, the medication needs of neonates have largely been neglected. The aim of this review is to expand on what differentiates the needs of preterm and term neonates from those of the older paediatric subsets, in terms of environment of care, ability to measure and administer the dose (from the perspective of the patient and carer, the routes of administration, the device and the product), neonatal bio-Pharmaceutics and regulatory challenges. This review offers insight into those challenges posed by the formulation of medicinal products for neonatal patients in order to support the development of clinically relevant products.