Econometric estimation of WHO-CHOICE country-specific costs for inpatient and outpatient health service delivery

Stenberg, Karin and Lauer, Jeremy A. and Gkountouras, Georgios and Fitzpatrick, Christopher and Stanciole, Anderson (2018) Econometric estimation of WHO-CHOICE country-specific costs for inpatient and outpatient health service delivery. Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation, 16 (1). pp. 1-15. 11. (

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Background: Policy makers require information on costs related to inpatient and outpatient health services to inform resource allocation decisions. Methods: Country data sets were gathered in 2008-2010 through literature reviews, website searches and a public call for cost data. Multivariate regression analysis was used to explore the determinants of variability in unit costs using data from 30 countries. Two models were designed, with the inpatient and outpatient models drawing upon 3407 and 9028 observations respectively. Cost estimates are produced at country and regional level, with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Inpatient costs across 30 countries are significantly associated with the type of hospital, ownership, as well as bed occupancy rate, average length of stay, and total number of inpatient admissions. Changes in outpatient costs are significantly associated with location, facility ownership and the level of care, as well as to the number of outpatient visits and visits per provider per day. Conclusions: These updated WHO-CHOICE service delivery unit costs are statistically robust and may be used by analysts as inputs for economic analysis. The models can predict country-specific unit costs at different capacity levels and in different settings.


Stenberg, Karin, Lauer, Jeremy A. ORCID logoORCID:, Gkountouras, Georgios, Fitzpatrick, Christopher and Stanciole, Anderson;