The applicability of GATT article XX(a) to animal welfare

Offor, Iyan and Walter, Jan (2017) The applicability of GATT article XX(a) to animal welfare. The UK Journal of Animal Law, 1 (1). pp. 10-20. ISSN 2516-2225

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This literature review synthesises recent academic commentary analysing whether there is evidence that trade restrictions aimed at protecting animal welfare can be justified under Article XX(a) of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 1994 and thus whether such measures can be complimentary to and comply with the World Trade Organisation's (WTO) free trade agenda. The literature review places particular emphasis on the EC - Seal Products case and the way the case has evolved interpretations of GATT Article XX(a).