CMOS sensors for fluorescence lifetime imaging

Henderson, Robert K. and Rae, Bruce R. and Li, Day-Uei; Durini, Daniel, ed. (2019) CMOS sensors for fluorescence lifetime imaging. In: High Performance Silicon Imaging. Elsevier, Duxford, pp. 377-412. ISBN 9780081024355 (

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This chapter begins by reviewing the theory, techniques and applications of fl uorescence lifetime sensing. It then looks at existing instrumentation and the ways in which complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology has sought to complement these technologies by providing low cost, robust and miniaturised sensors with increased throughput and dynamic range. A number of pixels and sensor architectures are compared with a view to future fully-integrated, lifetime imaging systems based on CMOS sensors.