Dispatching parameters, strategies and associated algorithm for VSM (virtual synchronous machines) and HGFC (hybrid grid forming convertors)

Ierna, Richard and Johnson, Anthony and Marshall, Ben and Urdal, Helge and Li, Can and Sumner, Mark and Egea-Àlvarez, Agustí (2019) Dispatching parameters, strategies and associated algorithm for VSM (virtual synchronous machines) and HGFC (hybrid grid forming convertors). In: 19th Wind Integration workshop, 2019-10-16 - 2019-10-18, Dublin.

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With the increasing drive towards renewable generation, there is no doubt that whilst the modern converter based plant is starting to replace conventional synchronous generation on a MW for MW basis, there is concern that the modern converter based plant is unable to contribute the same features as Synchronous Generation. Inertia, fault level, synchronizing torque which are for example, all fundamental pre-requisites for the design of and operation of a reliable and robust power system. There is therefore considerable interest in VSM and GFC controls which emulate the behavior of synchronous machines. This paper discusses various parameters, general dispatch principals in relation to VSM / GFC and proposes a possible algorithm to demonstrate a method of dispatch which aims to provide a robust level of system security whilst minimizing the plant requirements, particularly in respect of the storage, inertial and converter rating requirements which are seen as costly items as part of a plant design. In particular, the aim of this work is to develop a set of requirements which are sufficiently flexible to enable developers to meet using whatever means they wish to, yet at the same time ensuring that the Power System remains secure and robust against a background of increasing volumes of converter based plant. The solution discussed, is not tied to commercial parameters allowing these to be selected independently. The starting point is the initial requirement from Grid Code Consultation GC0100 Option 1 [9], and this work therefore informs potential implementation of solutions and specifications.