Identifying car ingress movement strategies before and after total knee replacement

Komaris, Dimitrios Sokratis and Govind, Cheral and Clarke, Jon and Ewen, Alistair and Jeldi, Artaban and Murphy, Andrew and Riches, Philip (2020) Identifying car ingress movement strategies before and after total knee replacement. International Biomechanics, 7 (1). pp. 9-18. ISSN 2333-5432 (

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Background: Post-operative performance of knee bearings is typically assessed in activities of daily living by means of motion capture. Biomechanical studies predominantly explore common tasks such as walking, standing and stair climbing, while overlooking equally demanding activities such as embarking a vehicle. Aims: The aim of this work is to evaluate changes in the movement habits of patients after total knee arthroplasty surgery in comparison to healthy age-matched control participants. Methods: A mock-up car was fabricated based on the architecture of a common vehicle. Ten control participants and 10 patients with severe osteoarthritis of the knee attended a single- and three-motion capture session(s), respectively. Participants were asked to enter the car and sit comfortably adopting a driving position. Three trials per session were used for the identification of movement strategies by means of hierarchical clustering. Task completion time was also measured. Results: Patients’ movement behaviour didn’t change significantly following total knee arthroplasty surgery. Control participants favoured different movement strategies compared to patients post-operatively. Group membership, height and sidedness of the affected joint were found to be non-significant in task completion time. Conclusion: This study describes an alternative movement identification technique for the analysis of the ingress movement that may be used to clinically assess knee bearings and aid in movement simulations and vehicle design.