Glycaemic, blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol control among patients with diabetes mellitus in a specialised clinic in Botswana : a cross-sectional study

Mwita, Julius Chacha and Francis, Joel M and Omech, Bernard and Botsile, Elizabeth and Oyewo, Aderonke and Mokgwathi, Matshidiso and Molefe-Baikai, Onkabetse Julia and Godman, Brian and Tshikuka, Jose-Gaby (2019) Glycaemic, blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol control among patients with diabetes mellitus in a specialised clinic in Botswana : a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open, 9 (7). e026807. ISSN 2044-6055

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    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: Control of glycaemic, hypertension and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is vital for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The current study was an audit of glycaemic, hypertension and LDL-C control among ambulant patients with T2DM in Botswana. Also, the study aimed at assessing factors associated with attaining optimal glycaemic, hypertension and LDL-C therapeutic goals. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: A specialised public diabetes clinic in Gaborone, Botswana. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with T2DM who had attended the clinic for ≥3 months between August 2017 and February 2018. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: The proportion of patients with optimal glycaemic (HbA1c<7%), hypertension (blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg) and LDL-C (<1.8 mmol/L) control. RESULTS: The proportions of patients meeting optimal targets were 32.3% for glycaemic, 54.2% for hypertension and 20.4% for LDL-C. Age≥ 50 years was positively associated with optimal glycaemic control (adjusted OR [AOR] 5.79; 95% CI 1.08 to 31.14). On the other hand, an increase in diabetes duration was inversely associated with optimal glycemic control (AOR 0.91; 95% CI 0.85 to 0.98). Being on an ACE inhibitor was inversely associated with optimal hypertension control (AOR 0.35; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.85). Being female was inversely associated with optimal LDL-C control (AOR 0.24; 95% CI (0.09 - 0.59). CONCLUSION: Patients with T2DM in Gaborone, Botswana, presented with suboptimal control of recommended glycaemic, hypertension and LDL-C targets. These findings call for urgent individual and health systems interventions to address key determinants of the recommended therapeutic targets among patients with diabetes in this setting.