Measurement and analysis of PMU reporting latency for smart grid protection and control applications

Blair, Steven M. and Syed, Mazheruddin H. and Roscoe, Andrew J. and Burt, Graeme M. and Braun, Jean-Pierre (2019) Measurement and analysis of PMU reporting latency for smart grid protection and control applications. IEEE Access, 7. pp. 48689-48698. 8665864. ISSN 2169-3536 (

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Emerging power system protection and control applications require faster-responding measurements and more accurate knowledge of the actual latency of the measurement and communications systems. A new method for accurately determining the reporting latency of a phasor measurement unit (PMU) has been developed and demonstrated. This method operates in real-time, works passively for any existing PMU without requiring changes to the PMU hardware or software, and it is very accurate - providing a measurement uncertainty of ¡500 ns in many cases, significantly surpassing the 0.002 s accuracy requirement in the most recent IEEE Synchrophasor standard. Only low-cost hardware and open source software are required. It is particularly important to understand end-to-end system latency, including the impact of local and wide-area communications, rather than just the latency of the PMU device; the proposed method also supports such practical measurements. It is therefore shown how this advance can be used to enable efficient, but realistic, cross-domain power system simulation studies, which incorporate measurement and communications delays. These capabilities address complexity and uncertainty in the design and operation of future PMU-based protection and control functions for new smart grid services.