Evaluation of non-intrusive load monitoring algorithms for appliance-level anomaly detection

Rashid, Haroon and Stankovic, Vladimir and Stankovic, Lina and Singh, Pushpendra (2019) Evaluation of non-intrusive load monitoring algorithms for appliance-level anomaly detection. In: 2019 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2019-05-12 - 2019-05-17, Brighton Conference Centre. (In Press)

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Appliance faults in buildings resulting in abnormal energy consumption is known as an anomaly. Traditionally, anomaly detection is performed either at aggregate, i.e., meter-level, or at appliance level. Meter-level anomaly detection does not identify the anomaly-causing appliance, while appliance-level detection requires submetering each appliance in the building. Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) has been proposed as an alternative to submetering to detect when appliances are running as well as estimate the appliance energy consumption. So far, applications have revolved around meaningful energy feedback. In this paper, we assess whether NILM can indeed be used for anomaly detection, as an alternative to submetering. We propose a supervised anomaly detection approach, AEM, and evaluate the effectiveness of NILM for anomaly detection. The proposed approach first learns an appliance's normal operation and then monitors its energy consumption for anomaly detection. We resort to real data, aggregate and submetered data from the two-year long REFIT dataset. We explain why anomaly detection performs worse with NILM data as compared to submetered data, highlighting the need for new, anomaly-aware NILM approaches.