Dehydroabietylamine-based cellulose nanofibril films : a new class of sustainable biomaterials for highly efficient, broad-spectrum antimicrobial effects

Hassan, Ghada and Forsman, Nina and Wan, Xing and Keurulainen, Leena and Bimbo, Luis M. and Johansson, Leena-Sisko and Sipari, Nina and Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari and Zimmernann, Ralf and Stehl, Susanne and Werner, Carsten and Saris, Per E. J. and Osterberg, Monika and Moreira, Vania M. (2019) Dehydroabietylamine-based cellulose nanofibril films : a new class of sustainable biomaterials for highly efficient, broad-spectrum antimicrobial effects. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 7 (5). pp. 5002-5009. ISSN 2168-0485

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    Abstract

    The design of antimicrobial surfaces as integral parts of advanced biomaterials is nowadays a high research priority, as the accumulation of microorganisms on surfaces inflicts substantial costs on the health and industry sectors. At present, there is a growing interest in designing functional materials from polymers abundant in nature, such as cellulose, that combine sustainability with outstanding mechanical properties and economic production. There is also the need to find suitable replacements for antimicrobial silver-based agents due to environmental toxicity and spread of resistance to metal antimicrobials. Herein we report the unprecedented decoration of cellulose nanofibril (CNF) films with dehydroabietylamine 1 (CNF-CMC-1), to give an innovative contact-active surface active against gram positive and negative bacteria including the methicillin-resistant S. aureus MRSA14TK301, with low potential to spread resistance and good biocompatibility, all achieved with low surface coverage. CNF-CMC-1 was particularly effective against S. aureus ATCC12528, causing virtually complete reduction of the total cells from 105 colony forming units (CFU)/mL bacterial suspensions, after 24 hours of contact. This gentle chemical modification of the surface of CNF fully retained the beneficial properties of the original film, including moisture buffering and strength, relevant in many potential applications. Our originally designed surface represents a new class of eco-friendly biomaterial that optimizes the performance of CNF by adding antimicrobial properties without the need for environmentally toxic silver.