Determinants of non-compliance with structural building code standards in Nigeria

Agapiou, Andrew and Yakubu, Sunday (2019) Determinants of non-compliance with structural building code standards in Nigeria. Proceedings of the ICE - Management, Procurement and Law, 172 (2). pp. 47-59. ISSN 1751-4304 (

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This paper examines the determinants of non-compliance with structural building code standards and regulations within residential development projects in Nigeria. The study targets all stakeholders in development projects, and data were collected using stratified sampling and through the administration of 600 paper-based questionnaires to construction professionals and other stakeholders. A total of 378 valid questionnaires were utilised, representing a valid response rate of 63%. The following indicators were identified and investigated through quantitative analysis: corruption, capacity building, employment/financial strength, professional rivalry, professional vested interests, technological expertise, professional involvement in decision-making, human rights and public opinion from the earlier research in Nigeria. Using SPSS software with the Amos add-on, factor analysis and structural equation modelling were employed to investigate the data, which revealed that corruption, professional rivalry, professional vested interest and professional involvement in decision-making as a combined administrative factor were the most influential in leading to non-compliance with building code standards in residential development projects in Nigeria, followed by training and, to a lesser extent, sociological factors. In response to the findings, this study develops credible and acceptable enforcement control policy framework practices to improve the administrative and technical failure aspects of building standards and regulatory compliance in residential development projects.


Agapiou, Andrew ORCID logoORCID: and Yakubu, Sunday;