Inertial properties of the German Shepherd Dog

Jones, O. Yvette and Raschke, Silvia U. and Riches, Philip E. (2018) Inertial properties of the German Shepherd Dog. PLOS One, 13 (10). e0206037. ISSN 1932-6203 (

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One of the most popular dog breeds deployed by both the police and military has been the German Shepherd yet little is known about the morphology or body segment parameters of this breed. Such measures are essential for developing biomechanical models which, in turn, may guide clinicians in developing surgical interventions, injury treatment and prevention procedures. This paper provides a complete set of body segment parameters and inertial properties for the German Shepherd. Morphometric measures and 3-dimensional inertial properties, including mass, centre of mass, moment of inertia and volume, were measured from 17 segments from 6 German Shepherd police service dog cadavers. Using whole body mass and geometric modelling, 11 regression equations were developed for predicting segment masses, and 33 equations were developed for predicting moments of inertia. Using these data, inverse dynamic analyses may be applied in future investigations of canine mechanics, guiding surgical procedures, rehabilitation and training especially for the German Shepherd breed but potentially for other breeds too.