Picture of boy being examining by doctor at a tuberculosis sanatorium

Understanding our future through Open Access research about our past...

Strathprints makes available scholarly Open Access content by researchers in the Centre for the Social History of Health & Healthcare (CSHHH), based within the School of Humanities, and considered Scotland's leading centre for the history of health and medicine.

Research at CSHHH explores the modern world since 1800 in locations as diverse as the UK, Asia, Africa, North America, and Europe. Areas of specialism include contraception and sexuality; family health and medical services; occupational health and medicine; disability; the history of psychiatry; conflict and warfare; and, drugs, pharmaceuticals and intoxicants.

Explore the Open Access research of the Centre for the Social History of Health and Healthcare. Or explore all of Strathclyde's Open Access research...

Image: Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust. Wellcome Collection - CC-BY.

Process variable optimization in the manufacture of resorcinol–formaldehyde gel materials

Prostredný, Martin and Abduljalil, Mohammed G. M. and Mulheran, Paul A. and Fletcher, Ashleigh J. (2018) Process variable optimization in the manufacture of resorcinol–formaldehyde gel materials. Gels, 4 (2). ISSN 2310-2861

Text (Prostredny-etal-Gels-2018-Process-variable-optimization-in-the-manufacture-of-resorcinol–formaldehyde gel-materials)
Final Published Version
License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 logo

Download (7MB) | Preview


Influence of process parameters of resorcinol-formaldehyde xerogel manufacture on final gel structure was studied, including solids content, preparation/drying temperature, solvent exchange, and drying method. Xerogels produced using a range of solids content between 10 to 40w/v% shows improved textural character up to 30w/v% with a subsequent decrease. Preparation/drying temperature shows a minimal threshold temperature of 55 °C is required to obtain a viable gel structure, with minimal impact on gel properties for further thermal increase. Improving the solvent exchange method by splitting the same amount of acetone used in this phase over the period of solvent exchange, rather than in a single application, shows an increase in total pore volume and average pore diameter, suggesting less shrinkage occurring during drying when using the improved method. Finally, comparing samples dried under vacuum and at ambient pressure, there seems to be less shrinkage when using vacuum drying compared to ambient drying, but these changes are insubstantial. Therefore, of the process parameters investigated, improved solvent exchange seems the most significant, and it is recommended that, economically, gels are produced using a solids content of 20w/v% at a temperature in excess of 55 °C, with regular solvent replenishment in the exchange step followed by ambient drying.