Picture offshore wind farm

Open Access: World leading research into plasma physics...

Strathprints makes available scholarly Open Access content by researchers in the Department of Physics, including those researching plasma physics.

Plasma physics explores the '4th' state of matter known as 'plasma'. Profound new insights are being made by Strathclyde researchers in their attempts to better understand plasma, its behaviour and applications. Areas of focus include plasma wave propagation, non-linear wave interactions in the ionosphere, magnetospheric cyclotron instabilities, the parametric instabilities in plasmas, and much more.

Based on the REF 2014 GPA Scores, Times Higher Education ranked Strathclyde as number one in the UK for physics research.

Explore Open Access plasma physics research and of the Department of Physics more generally. Or explore all of Strathclyde's Open Access research...

Explaining the EU's legal obligation for democracy promotion : the case of the EU-Turkey relationship

Cardwell, Paul James (2018) Explaining the EU's legal obligation for democracy promotion : the case of the EU-Turkey relationship. European Papers, 2 (3). pp. 863-886. ISSN 2499-7498

[img]
Preview
Text (Cardwell-EP-2017-Explaining-the-EU's-legal-obligation-for-democracy-promotion)
Cardwell_EP_2017_Explaining_the_EU_s_legal_obligation_for_democracy_promotion.pdf
Accepted Author Manuscript

Download (402kB) | Preview

Abstract

The EU has a Treaty-based obligation to promote democracy in the wider world, with a particular emphasis on neighbouring States. Doctrinal approaches to EU democracy promotion generally focus on a specific set of instruments, whereas the law of external relations underpins a much wider set of policies and practices relating to democracy promotion. This Article applies four categories of democracy promotion (on a positive/negative and express/implied axis) to a case study of the EU-Turkey relationship. The wider scope provided by this categorisation demonstrates that democracy promotion should not only be seen within the confines of “positive” measures such as enlargement conditionality but also by measures and practices which are often hidden from view. In doing so, a richer understanding of how the law of the EU’s external relations informs policy and practice can be gained.