A review of electrical metering accuracy standards in the context of dynamic power quality conditions of the grid

Quijano Cetina, R. and Roscoe, Andrew J. and Wright, P.S.; (2017) A review of electrical metering accuracy standards in the context of dynamic power quality conditions of the grid. In: 52nd International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), 2017. IEEE, GRC. ISBN 978-1-5386-2345-9

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    Abstract

    Numerous changes in electrical grid schemes, like the inclusion of renewable energy, the rise of non-linear loads and the emergence of electric vehicle charging, increases variable power quality conditions of the grid. In this dynamic scenario where energy could flow in both directions and the waveforms could be highly distorted, accuracy becomes a crucial factor for the correct measurement of electrical energy and power values. Errors in the assessment of these values have significant ramifications for revenue, billing and/or control. This non-ideal power quality scenario produces an error in electricity meters, that is not yet well known since there is no standardised procedure to calibrate meters under typical or emerging distorted waveform conditions. Current standards relevant for revenue energy meters like EN 50470-3:2006 allows measurements error up to ±2.5% while local regulations could be even more permissive. In order to establish an electricity fair trade market and meet expectations from consumers and utilities, electricity meters should arguably comply with higher accuracy standards. In this paper, the pertinence and possible impact of including tests under distorted waveform conditions, as well as new accuracy requirements on standards applicable to electricity meters for billing purposes will be discussed.