Technical developments of functional electrical stimulation to restore gait functions : sensing, control strategies, and current commercial systems

Meng, Lin and Porr, Bernd and Gollee, Henrik (2017) Technical developments of functional electrical stimulation to restore gait functions : sensing, control strategies, and current commercial systems. Chinese Journal of Scientific Instrument, 2017 (6). pp. 1319-1334. ISSN 0254-3087

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    Abstract

    The work presents a review on the technological advancements of functional electrical stimulation (FES) neuroprostheses to restore gait walking over the last decades. The aim of an FES intervention is to functionally restore and rehabilitate individuals with motor disorders, such as stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and others. The technique has been applied for widespread practical use for several years due to the rapid development of micro- and nano-technology. This technical review covers neuroprostheses developed within academia and currently available on the market. These systems are thoroughly analyzed and discussed with particular emphasis on the sensing techniques and control strategies. In the last part, a combination of FES technology and exoskeletons is presented as an emerging solution to overcome the drawbacks of current FES-based neuroprostheses, and recommendations on future research direction are suggested