Integrated sources of photon quantum states based on nonlinear optics

Caspani, Lucia and Xiong, Chunle and Eggleton, Benjamin J. and Bajoni, Daniele and Liscidini, Marco and Galli, Matteo and Morandotti, Roberto and Moss, David J. (2017) Integrated sources of photon quantum states based on nonlinear optics. Light: Science & Applications, 6. e17100. ISSN 2047-7538 (

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The ability to generate complex optical photon states involving entanglement between multiple optical modes is not only critical to advancing our understanding of quantum mechanics but will play a key role in generating many applications in quantum technologies. These include quantum communications, computation, imaging, microscopy and many other novel technologies that are constantly being proposed. However, approaches to generating parallel multiple, customisable bi- and multi-entangled quantum bits (qubits) on a chip are still in the early stages of development. Here, we review recent developments in the realisation of integrated sources of photonic quantum states, focusing on approaches based on nonlinear optics that are compatible with contemporary optical fibre telecommunications and quantum memory infrastructures as well as with chip-scale semiconductor technology. These new and exciting platforms hold the promise of compact, low-cost, scalable and practical implementations of source s for the generation and manipulation of complex quantum optical states on a chip, which will play a major role in bringing quantum technologies out of the laboratory and into the real world.