Fluorene-containing tetraphenylethylene molecules as lasing materials

Orofino, C. and Foucher, C. and Farrell, F. and Findlay, N. J. and Breig, B. and Kanibolotsky, A. L. and Guilhabert, B. and Vilela, F. and Laurand, N. and Dawson, M. D. and Skabara, P. J. (2017) Fluorene-containing tetraphenylethylene molecules as lasing materials. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, 55 (4). pp. 734-746. ISSN 0887-624X (https://doi.org/10.1002/pola.28421)

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A series of star-shaped oligofluorene molecules, each containing a TPE core, have been specifically designed and produced to show effective aggregation-induced emission (AIE). Each molecule differs either in the number of fluorene units within the arms (e.g., 1 or 4, compounds 4 and 5), or the terminal group positioned at the end of each arm (e.g., H, TMS, or TPA, compounds 4, 6, and 7). Although they are all poor emitters in solution phase they become efficient yellow-green luminogens in the condensed state. Their AIE properties were investigated in THF/H2O mixtures, with each molecule exhibiting a clear emission enhancement at specific water contents. An all-organic distributed feedback (DFB) laser was fabricated using compound 4 as the gain material and exhibited an average threshold energy fluence of 60 ± 6 μJ/cm2 and emission in the green region. Furthermore, piezofluorochromism studies on a thin film of this material displayed a linear dependence of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) peak position on applied pressure, indicating potential applications as lasing-based pressure sensors.