A study of the effects of exercise on the urinary metabolome using normalisation to individual metabolic output

Daskalaki, Evangelia and Blackburn, Gavin and Kalna, Gabriela and Zhang, Tong and Anthony, Nahoum and Watson, David G. (2015) A study of the effects of exercise on the urinary metabolome using normalisation to individual metabolic output. Metabolites, 5 (1). pp. 119-139. ISSN 2218-1989

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    Abstract

    Aerobic exercise, in spite of its multi-organ benefit and potent effect on the metabolome, has yet to be investigated comprehensively via an untargeted metabolomics technology. We conducted an exploratory untargeted liquid chromatography mass spectrometry study to investigate the effects of a one-h aerobic exercise session in the urine of three physically active males. Individual urine samples were collected over a 37-h protocol (two pre-exercise and eight post-exercise). Raw data were subjected to a variety of normalization techniques, with the most effective measure dividing each metabolite by the sum response of that metabolite for each individual across the 37-h protocol expressed as a percentage. This allowed the metabolite responses to be plotted on a normalised scale. Our results highlight significant metabolites located in the following systems: purine pathway, tryptophan metabolism, carnitine metabolism, cortisol metabolism, androgen metabolism, amino acid oxidation, as well as metabolites from the gastrointestinal microbiome. Many of the significant changes observed in our pilot investigation mirror previous research studies, of various methodological designs, published within the last 15 years, although they have never been reported at the same time in a single study.