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Exposing image forgery by detecting traces of feather operation

Zheng, Jiangbin and Zhu, Tingge and Li, Zhe and Xing, Weiwei and Ren, Jinchang (2015) Exposing image forgery by detecting traces of feather operation. Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, 27. pp. 9-18. ISSN 1095-8533

Text (Zheng-etal-JVLC-2015-Exposing-image-forgery-by-detecting-traces-of-feather)
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Powerful digital image editing tools make it very easy to produce a perfect image forgery. The feather operation is necessary when tampering an image by copy–paste operation because it can help the boundary of pasted object to blend smoothly and unobtrusively with its surroundings. We propose a blind technique capable of detecting traces of feather operation to expose image forgeries. We model the feather operation, and the pixels of feather region will present similarity in their gradient phase angle and feather radius. An effectual scheme is designed to estimate each feather region pixel׳s gradient phase angle and feather radius, and the pixel׳s similarity to its neighbor pixels is defined and used to distinguish the feathered pixels from un-feathered pixels. The degree of image credibility is defined, and it is more acceptable to evaluate the reality of one image than just using a decision of YES or NO. Results of experiments on several forgeries demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique.