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Utilising stored wind energy by hydro-pumped storage to provide frequency support at high levels of wind energy penetration

Attya, Ayman Bakry Taha and Hartkopf, Thomas (2015) Utilising stored wind energy by hydro-pumped storage to provide frequency support at high levels of wind energy penetration. IET Generation Transmission and Distribution. ISSN 1751-8687

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Abstract

Wind farms (WFs) contribution in frequency deviations curtailment is a grey area, especially when WFs replace large conventional generation capacities. This study offers an algorithm to integrate hydro-pumped storage station (HPSS) to provide inertial and primary support, during frequency drops by utilising stored wind energy. However, wind turbines follow maximum power tracking, and do not apply frequency support methods, thus the wasted wind energy is mitigated. First, HPSS rated power and energy capacity are determined based on several givens, including wind speed and load characteristics. Thus, HPSS major aspects are estimated [e.g. pump(s), reservoir layout and generator(s)]. Second, offered algorithm coordinates energy storage, and releasing through several dynamic and static factors. HPSS output is continuously controlled through a timed approach to provide frequency support. A hypothetical system is inspired from Egyptian grid and real wind speed records at recommended locations to host WFs. Case studies examine the algorithm impact on frequency recovery, at 40% wind power penetration. The responses of thermal generation and HPSS are analysed to highlight the influence of tuning the parameters of the proposed algorithm. The assessment of several frequency metrics insures the positive role of HPSS in frequency drops curtailment. Simulation environments are MATLAB and Simulink.