Picture water droplets

Developing mathematical theories of the physical world: Open Access research on fluid dynamics from Strathclyde

Strathprints makes available Open Access scholarly outputs by Strathclyde's Department of Mathematics & Statistics, where continuum mechanics and industrial mathematics is a specialism. Such research seeks to understand fluid dynamics, among many other related areas such as liquid crystals and droplet evaporation.

The Department of Mathematics & Statistics also demonstrates expertise in population modelling & epidemiology, stochastic analysis, applied analysis and scientific computing. Access world leading mathematical and statistical Open Access research!

Explore all Strathclyde Open Access research...

Evaluation of actical equations and thresholds to predict physical activity intensity in young children

Janssen, Xanne and Cliff, Dylan and Reilly, John and Hinkley, Trina and Jones, Rachel and Batterham, Marijka and Ekelund, Ulf and Brage, Søren and Okely, Tony (2014) Evaluation of actical equations and thresholds to predict physical activity intensity in young children. Journal of Sports Sciences, 33 (5). pp. 498-506. ISSN 0264-0414

Text (Janssen-etal-JSS-2014-Evaluation-of-actical-equations-and-thresholds-to-predict-physical-activity)
Accepted Author Manuscript

Download (290kB) | Preview


This study examined the validity of current Actical activity energy expenditure (AEE) equations and intensity cut-points in preschoolers using AEE and direct observation as criterion measures. Forty 4–6-year-olds (5.3 ± 1.0 years) completed a ~150-min room calorimeter protocol involving age-appropriate sedentary behaviours (SBs), light intensity physical activities (LPAs) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activities (MVPAs). AEE and/or physical activity intensity were calculated using Actical equations and cut-points by Adolph, Evenson, Pfeiffer and Puyau. Predictive validity was examined using paired sample t-tests. Classification accuracy was evaluated using weighted kappas, sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The Pfeiffer equation significantly overestimated AEE during SB and underestimated AEE during LPA (P < 0.0125 for both). There was no significant difference between measured and predicted AEEs during MVPA. The Adolph cut-point showed significantly higher accuracy for classifying SB, LPA and MVPA than all others. The available Actical equation does not provide accurate estimates of AEE across all intensities in preschoolers. However, the Pfeiffer equation performed reasonably well for MVPA. Using cut-points of ≤6 counts · 15 s−1, 7–286 counts · 15 s−1 and ≥ 287 counts · 15 s−1 when classifying SB, LPA and MVPA, respectively, is recommended.