Response-only method for damage detection of beam-like structures using high accuracy frequencies with auxiliary mass spatial probing

Zhong, Shuncong and Oyadiji, S. Olutunde and Ding, Kang (2008) Response-only method for damage detection of beam-like structures using high accuracy frequencies with auxiliary mass spatial probing. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 311 (3-5). pp. 1075-1099. ISSN 0022-460X (

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This paper proposes a new approach based on auxiliary mass spatial probing using spectral centre correction method (SCCM), to provide a simple solution for damage detection by just using the response time history of beam-like structures. The natural frequencies of a damaged beam with a traversing auxiliary mass change due to change in the inertia of the beam as the auxiliary mass is traversed along the beam, as well as the point-to-point variations in the flexibility of the beam. Therefore the auxiliary mass can enhance the effects of the crack on the dynamics of the beam and, therefore, facilitate the identification and location of damage in the beam. That is, the auxiliary mass can be used to probe the dynamic characteristic of the beam by traversing the mass from one end of the beam to the other. However, it is impossible to obtain accurate modal frequencies by the direct operation of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the response data of the structure because the frequency spectrum can be only calculated from limited sampled time data which results in the well-known leakage effect. SCCM is identical to the energy centrobaric correction method (ECCM) which is a practical and effective method used in rotating mechanical fault diagnosis and which resolves the shortcoming of FFT and can provide high accuracy estimate of frequency, amplitude and phase. In the present work, the modal responses of damaged simply supported beams with auxiliary mass are computed using the finite element method (FEM). The graphical plots of the natural frequencies calculated by SCCM versus axial location of auxiliary mass are obtained. However, it is difficult to locate the crack directly from the curve of natural frequencies. A simple and fast method, the derivatives of natural frequency curve, is proposed in the paper which can provide crack information for damage detection of beam-like structures. The efficiency and practicability of the proposed method is illustrated via numerical simulation. For real cases, experimental noise is expected to corrupt the response data and, ultimately, the natural frequencies of beam-like structures. Therefore, the response data with a normally distributed random noise is also studied. Also, the effects of crack depth, auxiliary mass and damping ratios on the proposed method are investigated. From the simulated results, the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method is demonstrated. The results show that the proposed method has low computational cost and high precision.