A smartphone based ophthalmoscope

Giardini, Mario E. and Livingstone, Iain A. T. and Jordan, Stewart and Bolster, Nigel M. and Peto, Tunde and Burton, Matthew and Bastawrous, Andrew; (2014) A smartphone based ophthalmoscope. In: 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC). IEEE, USA, pp. 2177-2180. ISBN 9781424479276 (https://doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2014.6944049)

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A low-cost alternative to the direct ophthalmoscope, a simple optical adapter for a smartphone, is described. It can overcome many of the technical challenges of fundoscopy, providing a high-resolution view of the retina through an un-dilated pupil. This can be used in locations with limited diagnostic resources to detect conditions such as glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Comparison of optic nerve images from commercial retinal screening cameras with the smartphone adapter demonstrates strong evidence for no difference in performance in glaucomatous disc grading (p=0.98, paired student t test, n=300).