Picture of boy being examining by doctor at a tuberculosis sanatorium

Understanding our future through Open Access research about our past...

Strathprints makes available scholarly Open Access content by researchers in the Centre for the Social History of Health & Healthcare (CSHHH), based within the School of Humanities, and considered Scotland's leading centre for the history of health and medicine.

Research at CSHHH explores the modern world since 1800 in locations as diverse as the UK, Asia, Africa, North America, and Europe. Areas of specialism include contraception and sexuality; family health and medical services; occupational health and medicine; disability; the history of psychiatry; conflict and warfare; and, drugs, pharmaceuticals and intoxicants.

Explore the Open Access research of the Centre for the Social History of Health and Healthcare. Or explore all of Strathclyde's Open Access research...

Image: Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust. Wellcome Collection - CC-BY.

Thermal volatilisation analysis of a TDI-based flexible polyurethane foam containing ammonium polyphosphate

Allan, D. and Daly, J. H. and Liggat, J. J. (2014) Thermal volatilisation analysis of a TDI-based flexible polyurethane foam containing ammonium polyphosphate. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 102. pp. 170-179. ISSN 0141-3910

[img]
Preview
PDF (Allan-Daly-Liggat-PDS-2014-Thermal-Volatilisation-Analysis-of-a-TDI-based-flexible-polyurethane-foam)
Allan_Daly_Liggat_PDS_2014_Thermal_Volatilisation_Analysis_of_a_TDI_based_flexible_polyurethane_foam.pdf
Accepted Author Manuscript
License: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 logo

Download (1MB) | Preview

Abstract

In this paper, we report a comprehensive study on a TDI-based foam containing 13% ammonium polyphosphate (APP) in order to examine the effect that this conventional fire retardant has on the thermal and thermo-oxidative degradation behaviour of the polyurethane foam. The results from TVA and TGA analyses show that the APP foam undergoes a significantly different degradation mechanism to the standard foam that we have reported on previously. The TGA results revealed the presence of a two-stage degradation process under a non-oxidative environment. The TVA results, on the other hand, revealed that degradation of the APP foam in fact occurs in four overlapping steps compared to the two-step process which occurs for the standard foam. The additional degradation steps observed for the APP foam are proposed to correspond to degradation of the fire retardant. Evolution of volatile material was also observed to occur at a lower temperature for the APP foam and it is proposed that the primary degradation of the urethane linkages via a depolycondensation reaction is acid-catalysed by the acidic hydroxyl groups which arise from degradation of APP. The sub-ambient differential distillation trace revealed that the nature and distribution of the volatiles evolved from the APP foam were profoundly different to the standard foam, which confirms that the secondary degradation is also altered in the presence of APP.