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Driving innovations in manufacturing: Open Access research from DMEM

Strathprints makes available Open Access scholarly outputs by Strathclyde's Department of Design, Manufacture & Engineering Management (DMEM).

Centred on the vision of 'Delivering Total Engineering', DMEM is a centre for excellence in the processes, systems and technologies needed to support and enable engineering from concept to remanufacture. From user-centred design to sustainable design, from manufacturing operations to remanufacturing, from advanced materials research to systems engineering.

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Changes in the dielectric relaxations of water in epoxy resin as a function of the extent of water ingress in carbon fibre composites

Boinard, P. and Banks, W.M. and Pethrick, R.A. (2005) Changes in the dielectric relaxations of water in epoxy resin as a function of the extent of water ingress in carbon fibre composites. Polymer, 46 (7). pp. 2218-2229. ISSN 0032-3861

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Abstract

Dielectric relaxation measurements are reported over a frequency range from 10-1 to 109 Hz as a function of exposure time for an epoxy resin-carbon fibre composite, ageing at 60C in water. Investigation of the nature of the dipole relaxation of the water molecules, indicates the nature of their interaction with the polymer matrix. Analysis of the dielectric relaxation spectra allow identification of processes that can be attributed to 'free' and 'bonded' water, water in micro-cracking, located in carbon fibre disbonds and plasticizing the polymer matrix. Identification of the various types of location in which water exists was aided by use of the Ng factor from the Kirkwood-Frölich equation, which describes the constraints on free dipole ration nature imposed by the environment in which it is located. These data indicate the power of the dielectric technique for quantitative analysis of water ingress into epoxy composites.