Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging techniques suitable for solid-state imaging sensor arrays

Li, David Day Uei and Ameer-Beg, Simon and Arlt, Jochen and Tyndall, David and Walker, Richard and Matthews, Daniel R. and Visitkul, Viput and Richardson, Justin and Henderson, Robert K. (2012) Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging techniques suitable for solid-state imaging sensor arrays. Sensors, 12 (5). pp. 5650-5669. ISSN 1424-8220

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    Abstract

    We have successfully demonstrated video-rate CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD)-based cameras for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) by applying innovative FLIM algorithms. We also review and compare several time-domain techniques and solid-state FLIM systems, and adapt the proposed algorithms for massive CMOS SPAD-based arrays and hardware implementations. The theoretical error equations are derived and their performances are demonstrated on the data obtained from 0.13 μm CMOS SPAD arrays and the multiple-decay data obtained from scanning PMT systems. In vivo two photon fluorescence lifetime imaging data of FITC-albumin labeled vasculature of a P22 rat carcinosarcoma (BD9 rat window chamber) are used to test how different algorithms perform on bi-decay data. The proposed techniques are capable of producing lifetime images with enough contrast.