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Open Access research with a European policy impact...

The Strathprints institutional repository is a digital archive of University of Strathclyde's Open Access research outputs. Strathprints provides access to thousands of Open Access research papers by Strathclyde researchers, including by researchers from the European Policies Research Centre (EPRC).

EPRC is a leading institute in Europe for comparative research on public policy, with a particular focus on regional development policies. Spanning 30 European countries, EPRC research programmes have a strong emphasis on applied research and knowledge exchange, including the provision of policy advice to EU institutions and national and sub-national government authorities throughout Europe.

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Evaluation of methods aimed at complete removal of template from molecularly imprinted polymers

Ellwanger, A. and Berggren, C. and Bayoudh, S. and Crecenzi, C. and Karlsson, L. and Owens, P.K. and Ensing, K. and Cormack, P. and Sherrington, D.C. and Sellergren, B. (2001) Evaluation of methods aimed at complete removal of template from molecularly imprinted polymers. Analyst, 126 (6). pp. 784-792. ISSN 0003-2654

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Abstract

Polymers imprinted with clenbuterol were used to study the influence of various post-polymerization treatments [e.g., thermal annealing, microwave assisted extraction (MAE), Soxhlet extraction and supercritical fluid template desorption] on the bleeding of residual template. The aim of the study was to reduce the bleeding to levels that would allow the use of the materials as affinity phases for extraction of clenbuterol from bovine urine at concentrations below 1 ng ml(-1). After treatment, the clenbuterol imprinted polymers were packed into solid-phase extraction columns and the bleeding was estimated by quantifying the amount of template released in 10 ml of methanol-acetic acid (9 + 1 v/v). This was followed by an assessment of selectivity and recovery in comparison with non-treated material. The lowest bleeding level was found after MAE using 100% trifluoroacetic acid for 3 x 20 min at 100 degreesC. The collected eluate contained in this case 3 ng ml(-1) of clenbuterol. The same material was subsequently used for the extraction of clenbuterol from spiked bovine urine. The resulting selectivity and recovery were lower compared with those obtained using the untreated material. A milder but still efficient method to reduce the bleeding level was found to be MAE with formic acid. In this case a bleeding level of 14 ng ml(-1) was found after only a 1 h extraction time. In a second model system, using a polymer imprinted with l-phenylalanine anilide, the bleeding was reduced to a similar level by extensive on-line washing in good swelling solvents containing acid or base additives and after thermal annealing of the polymers in the dry state.