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An evaluation of 1-3 connectivity composite transducers for air coupled ultrasonic applications

Hayward, Gordon and Gachagan, Anthony (1996) An evaluation of 1-3 connectivity composite transducers for air coupled ultrasonic applications. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 99 (4). pp. 2148-2157. ISSN 0001-4966

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A combination of theoretical modeling and experimental analysis is used to predict and assess the performance of 1-3 composite transducers for operation in an air-coupled environment. Specifically, finite element analysis, supported by linear systems modeling, is employed to evaluate transmission and reception characteristics over the complete volume fraction range, for operating frequencies in the region of 500 kHz, and the;theory confirmed using novel experimental techniques. The theoretical approach is then extended to assess the influence of matching and backing on transducer sensitivity and bandwidth. Throughout, the influence of air propagation is included in the simulation approach and highlighted where this factor is significant. The work is expected to provide useful design guidelines for the practical ultrasonic engineer.