Picture of industrial chimneys polluting horizon

Open Access research shaping international environmental governance...

Strathprints makes available scholarly Open Access content exploring environmental law and governance, in particular the work of the Strathclyde Centre for Environmental Law & Governance (SCELG) based within the School of Law.

SCELG aims to improve understanding of the trends, challenges and potential solutions across different interconnected areas of environmental law, including capacity-building for sustainable management of biodiversity, oceans, lands and freshwater, as well as for the fight against climate change. The intersection of international, regional, national and local levels of environmental governance, including the customary laws of indigenous peoples and local communities, and legal developments by private actors, is also a signifcant research specialism.

Explore Open Access research by SCELG or the School of Law. Or explore all of Strathclyde's Open Access research...

Hospitality codes and social exchange theory : the Pashtunwali and tourism in Afghanistan

Coulson, Andrea B. and MacLaren, Andrew C. and McKenzie, Stewart and O'Gorman, Kevin D. (2014) Hospitality codes and social exchange theory : the Pashtunwali and tourism in Afghanistan. Tourism Management, 45. pp. 134-141. ISSN 0261-5177

[img] PDF (Coulson-etal-TM2014-hospitality-codes-and-social-exchange-theory)
Coulson_etal_TM2014_hospitality_codes_and_social_exchange_theory.pdf
Accepted Author Manuscript
License: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 logo

Download (416kB)

Abstract

The Afghan people are shrouded in rumor, myth and superstition. Drawing upon insights from military personnel, intelligence operatives, journalists and others, this study uses Social Exchange Theory (SET) to frame our understanding of their underpinning cultural code, the Pashtunwali. The study contributes both theoretically and empirically: The nature of the Pashtunwali highlights that SET cannot adequately frame some cultural exchange practices and a hybrid framework for negotiated and reciprocal exchange is presented. Furthermore, contextually, this is the first study that explores a code of hospitality through a social exchange lens to explore potential tourism development. A framework exists upon which commercial activity can be built without altering beliefs, social dynamics or day to day pursuits. For commercial development to be successful, it must yield similar or greater levels of income to those that currently exist, more importantly, traditions of autonomy and self-dependence will affect employment and training within an emergent tourism industry.