Noninvasive field measurement of low-frequency ultrasonic transducers operating in sealed vessels

Harvey, G. and Gachagan, A. (2006) Noninvasive field measurement of low-frequency ultrasonic transducers operating in sealed vessels. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, 53 (10). pp. 1749-1758. ISSN 0885-3010 (

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This paper describes a noninvasive technique utilizing the acousto-optic effect, laser interferometry, and tomographic principles that have been implemented to measure the acoustic fields generated by low-frequency ultrasonic transducers operating into sealed, water-loaded vessels commonly used in industrial processing applications. A customized scanning frame, incorporating both linear and rotational stages, has been developed to facilitate manipulation of the laser head and vessel under evaluation. First, transmitted pressure profiles in air are predicted from surface displacement data acquired directly by laser measurement of the vibrating aperture. These profiles were then used to verify the measured fields obtained via conventional tomographic scanning procedures, coupled with laser interferometry, applied within a draft-proof scanning facility under free-field conditions. Next, the finite element code PZFlex was employed for the prediction of pressure fields within cylindrical cell configurations. Finally, precise manipulation of the laser firing angle and position was implemented in order to compensate for the effects of refraction at the cell wall boundaries, and to re-establish the projections required for the reconstruction algorithm. The experimental results demonstrate good corroboration with the PZFlex predictions, validating its application of ultrasound as a virtual prototyping tool for the design of high power ultrasonic test vessels.