Application of HPC for power system operation and electricity market tools for power networks of the future

Kockar, Ivana; Khaitan, Siddhartha Kumar and Gupta, Anshul, eds. (2013) Application of HPC for power system operation and electricity market tools for power networks of the future. In: High performance computing in power and energy systems power systems. Power Systems . Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, pp. 359-378. ISBN 9783642326820 (

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Development and application of SmartGrids or Intelligrids, including roll-out of smart meters and electrical vehicles, is of a great importance if the UK and other countries are to achieve significant carbon emission reductions and realize sustainable energy systems. These new grids will offer the opportunity to increase the level of renewable energy integrated into the system. They will also allow customers, including small households, to actively participate and adjust their demand depending on energy availability and price. This will further lead towards improved energy efficiency, as well as offer possibilities to reduce overall consumption and reduce or postpone investments into new large generation and infrastructure facilities. To achieve these goals, a number of technical, economical and policy issues need to be addressed and resolved. The development of new generations of extremely fast software tools that can solve power system problems with large number of nodes will also be important to help resolve these issues. For example, distribution system and network operators, as well as trading entities such as aggregators, will get a better coordination of system operation though the possibility to engage with even smaller generators, and especially smaller customers. This control at lower voltage levels will allow for the aggregation of responses which will then propagate to higher voltage levels. Currently, the discussion regarding the operation of future power systems is looking into two different options. One is to develop methodologies that will allow decentralization of network operation with the reduced level of coordination at the high level of system operation. However, the new software developed to exploit the benefits of the HPC architecture may open a possibility for businesses and policy makers to investigate and compare operation of centralized vs. decentralized operation over areas with large number of participants.. These new HPC power system analysis tools will enable more frequent price signal calculations and bring the possibility to define policies which will ensure engagement with customers to reduce their energy consumption or shift it towards offpeak periods, as well as allow for the coordination of charging of electric vehicles and their use as storage devices. Such tools will be useful for both decentralized and centralized operation, however they will be crucial for the latter. This chapter will first give an overview of the changes in future power system operation and then outline power system analysis tools such as power flow, optimal power flow, generation scheduling and the security assessment. It will then discuss current status of the parallel techniques and HPC applications for the power system operation tools. It will also discuss the formulation requirements, achievements and possible obstacles in the application of techniques suitable for HPC and for power system operation problems such as power flow, optimal power flow (OPF), security constrained OPF. Finally, it will look how new developments in the HPC/Numerical Analysis area, and even more powerful Extreme Computing together with new algorithms developed for this next-step class of machines may help improve power system operation and electricity markets tools.