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An investigation of acoustic beam patterns for the sonar localization problem using a beam based method

Guarato, Francesco and Windmill, James and Gachagan, Anthony and Harvey, Gerald (2013) An investigation of acoustic beam patterns for the sonar localization problem using a beam based method. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 133 (6). pp. 4044-4053. ISSN 0001-4966

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Abstract

Target localization can be accomplished through an ultrasonic sonar system equipped with an emitter and two receivers. Time of flight of the sonar echoes allows the calculation of the distance of the target. The orientation can be estimated from knowledge of the beam pattern of the receivers and the ratio, in the frequency domain, between the emitted and the received signals after compensation for distance effects and air absorption. The localization method is described and, as its performance strongly depends on the beam pattern, the search of the most appropriate sonar receiver in order to ensure the highest accuracy of target orientation estimations is developed in this paper. The structure designs considered are inspired by the ear shapes of some bat species. Parameters like flare rate, truncation angle, and tragus are considered in the design of the receiver structures. Simulations of the localization method allow us to state which combination of those parameters could provide the best real world implementation. Simulation results show the estimates of target orientations are, in the worst case, 2° with SNR = 50 dB using the receiver structure chosen for a potential practical implementation of a sonar system.