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Associations between short/medium-term variations in black smoke air pollution and mortality in the Glasgow conurbation, UK

Beverland, I.J. and Carder, M. and Cohen, G.R. and Heal, M.R. and Agius, R.M. (2012) Associations between short/medium-term variations in black smoke air pollution and mortality in the Glasgow conurbation, UK. Environment International, 50. pp. 1-6. ISSN 0160-4120

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Abstract

To examine associations between short/medium-term variations in black smoke air pollution and mortality in the population of Glasgow and the adjacent towns of Renfrew and Paisley over a 25-year period at different time lags (0–30 days). Generalised linear (Poisson) models were used to investigate the relationship between lagged black smoke concentrations and daily mortality, with allowance for confounding by cold temperature, between 1974 and 1998. When a range of lag periods were investigated significant associations were noted between temperature-adjusted black smoke exposure and all-cause mortality at lag periods of 13–18 and 19–24 days, and respiratory mortality at lag periods of 1–6, 7–12, and 13–18 days. Significant associations between cardiovascular mortality and temperature-adjusted black smoke were not observed. After adjusting for the effects of temperature a 10 μg m−3 increase in black smoke concentration on a given day was associated with a 0.9% [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.3–1.5%] increase in all cause mortality and a 3.1% [95% CI:1.4–4.9%] increase in respiratory mortality over the ensuing 30-day period. In contrast for a 10 μg m−3 increase in black smoke concentration over 0–3 day lag period, the temperature adjusted exposure mortality associations were substantially lower (0.2% [95% CI: −0.0–0.4%] and 0.3% [95% CI: −0.2–0.8%] increases for all-cause and respiratory mortality respectively). This study has provided evidence of association between black smoke exposure and mortality at longer lag periods than have been investigated in the majority of time series analyses.