Evaluation of the lipophilic properties of opioids, amphetamine-like drugs, and metabolites through electrochemical studies at the interface between two immiscible solutions

Gulaboski, Rubin and Cordeiro, M. Natalia D. S. and Milhazes, Nuno and Garrido, Jorge and Borges, Fernanda and Jorge, Miguel and Pereira, Carlos M. and Bogeski, Ivan and Morales, Aluska Helguera and Naumoski, Blaze and Silva, A. Fernando (2007) Evaluation of the lipophilic properties of opioids, amphetamine-like drugs, and metabolites through electrochemical studies at the interface between two immiscible solutions. Analytical Biochemistry, 361 (2). pp. 236-243. ISSN 0003-2697

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Abstract

For the first time, the partition coefficients of the ionized forms of several opioids, amphetamine-like drugs, and their metabolites were determined by studying their ionic transfer process across the bare interface water/organic solvent. The ionic partition coefficients of the monocationic forms of 12 compounds heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), morphine, acetylcodeine, codeine, dihydrocodeine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy"), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3-methoxy-alpha-methyldopamine (3-OMe-alpha-MeDA), and alpha-methyldopamine (alpha-MeDA)-were attained using electrochemical measurements, by cyclic voltammetry, at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES). Then the acquired lipophilicity values were correlated to the chemical structure of the compounds and with the metabolic pathways central to each class of drugs. Although the mechanisms of biotoxicity of this type of drugs are still unclear, the data obtained evidence that the lipophilicity of metabolites may be a contributing factor for the qualitative differences found in their activity. In addition, the partition coefficients of the ionic drugs were calculated using three available software packages: ModesLab, Dragon, and HyperChem. As shown by cross-comparison of the experimental and calculated values, HyperChem was the most reliable software for achieving the main goal. The data obtained so far seem to be correlated to the proposed metabolic pathways of the drugs and could be of great value in understanding their pharmacological and/or toxicological profiles at the molecular level. This study may also contribute to gaining an insight into the mechanisms of biotransportation of this type of compounds given that the ionic partition coefficients reflect their ability to cross the membrane barriers. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.