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Literary linguistics: Open Access research in English language

Strathprints makes available Open Access scholarly outputs by English Studies at Strathclyde. Particular research specialisms include literary linguistics, the study of literary texts using techniques drawn from linguistics and cognitive science.

The team also demonstrates research expertise in Renaissance studies, researching Renaissance literature, the history of ideas and language and cultural history. English hosts the Centre for Literature, Culture & Place which explores literature and its relationships with geography, space, landscape, travel, architecture, and the environment.

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Immunological studies of chronic ocular toxoplasmosis : up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex class I and transforming growth factor beta and a protective role for interleukin-6

Lyons, R. and Anthony, J.P. and Ferguson, D.J.P. and Byrne, N. and Alexander, J. and Roberts, F. and Roberts, C.W. (2001) Immunological studies of chronic ocular toxoplasmosis : up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex class I and transforming growth factor beta and a protective role for interleukin-6. Infection and Immunity, 69 (4). pp. 2589-2595. ISSN 0019-9567

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Abstract

A murine model was used to characterize the local immune and inflammatory response during ocular toxoplasmosis. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, normally expressed at low levels in immune-privileged sites such as the eye, was up-regulated during infection as determined by competitive reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and immunocytochemistry for both beta 2-microglobulin and the MHC class I heavy chain. However, the eyes of chronically infected mice also had increased levels of mRNA transcripts for transforming growth factor beta , a cytokine associated with immune privilege and constitutively expressed in normal eyes. Transcripts for a number of inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), were increased during chronic infection. The role of IL-6 was further investigated by comparing disease progression and the development of the local immune response in wild-type (WT) and IL-6-deficient mice (IL-6-/- mice). Following infection, IL-6-/- mice developed more severe inflammation in the retina and vitreous humor compared with WT mice. This increased severity of disease was associated with reduced ocular IL-1alpha and increased tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA production compared with WT mice. Moreover, the increased severity of disease in IL-6-/- mice correlated with increased eye parasite burden as determined by RT-PCR for the Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific LDH2 gene. These results demonstrate alterations to components of immune privilege as a result of ocular toxoplasmosis and a role for IL-6 in controlling parasite numbers and inflammation in the eye.