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Electrochemical synthesis of ammonia based on doped-ceria-carbonate composite electrolyte and perovskite cathode

Amar, Ibrahim A. and Petit, Christophe T. G. and Zhang, Lei and Lan, Rong and Tao, Shanwen and Skabara, Peter (2011) Electrochemical synthesis of ammonia based on doped-ceria-carbonate composite electrolyte and perovskite cathode. Solid State Ionics, 201 (1). pp. 94-100. ISSN 0167-2738

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Electrochemical synthesis of ammonia was investigated using a cobalt-free La0.6Sr0.4Fe0.8Cu0.2O3-delta-Ce-0.8-sm(0.2)O(2-delta) (LSFCu-SDC) composite cathode and SDC-ternary carbonate composite electrolyte. La0.6Sr0.4Fe0.8-Cu0.2O3-delta and Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-delta were prepared via combined EDTA-citrate complexing sol gel and glycine nitrate processes, respectively, and characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Ammonia was successfully synthesised from wet hydrogen and dry nitrogen under atmospheric pressure using Ni-SDC, SDC-carbonate and LSFCu-SDC composites as anode, electrolyte and cathode respectively. Ammonia formation was observed at 400, 425, 450 and 475 degrees C and the maximum rate of ammonia production was found to be 5.39 x 10(-9) mol s(-1) cm(-2) at 450 degrees C and 0.8 V. The AC impedance measurements were recorded before and after the ammonia synthesis in the range of temperature 400-475 degrees C. The formation of ammonia at the N-2 side together with stable current at 450 degrees C under constant voltage demonstrates that SDC-(Li/Na/K)(2)CO3 composite electrolyte exhibits significant proton conduction at a temperature around 450 degrees C. (C) 2011 Elsevier BM. All rights reserved.