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Literary linguistics: Open Access research in English language

Strathprints makes available Open Access scholarly outputs by English Studies at Strathclyde. Particular research specialisms include literary linguistics, the study of literary texts using techniques drawn from linguistics and cognitive science.

The team also demonstrates research expertise in Renaissance studies, researching Renaissance literature, the history of ideas and language and cultural history. English hosts the Centre for Literature, Culture & Place which explores literature and its relationships with geography, space, landscape, travel, architecture, and the environment.

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Measurement of the anisotropy of Young's modulus in single-crystal silicon

Boyd, Euan and Uttamchandani, Deepak (2012) Measurement of the anisotropy of Young's modulus in single-crystal silicon. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 21 (1). pp. 243-249. ISSN 1057-7157

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Abstract

In (100) silicon wafers, the most commonly used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication, the value of Young's modulus of a MEMS structure can vary by over 20%, depending on the structure's orientation on the wafer surface. This anisotropy originates from the crystal structure of silicon. We have directly measured the anisotropy of Young's modulus in the (100) plane of silicon from the measured resonance frequencies of a “wagon-wheel” test structure comprising an arc of identical microcantilevers fabricated in the structural layer of a (100) silicon-on-insulator wafer. The direction of the principal axis of the cantilevers increased from 0° to 180 ° in 10° steps with respect to the [110] direction, allowing the angular dependence of Young's modulus to be experimentally mapped out. The Young's modulus was measured to have a value of 170 GPa ± 3 GPa at 0° and 90 ° to the [110] direction and a value of 131 GPa ± 3 GPa at ±40° and ±50° to the [110] direction. The measured values of Young's modulus and their angular dependence agree very well with the theoretical values that were recently reported, thereby experimentally verifying the theoretical calculations.