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Literary linguistics: Open Access research in English language

Strathprints makes available Open Access scholarly outputs by English Studies at Strathclyde. Particular research specialisms include literary linguistics, the study of literary texts using techniques drawn from linguistics and cognitive science.

The team also demonstrates research expertise in Renaissance studies, researching Renaissance literature, the history of ideas and language and cultural history. English hosts the Centre for Literature, Culture & Place which explores literature and its relationships with geography, space, landscape, travel, architecture, and the environment.

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Novel mucosal vaccines generated by genetic conjugation of heterologous proteins to pneumolysin (PLY) from Streptococcus pneumoniae

Douce, Gill and Ross, Kirsty and Cowan, Graeme and Ma, Jiangtao and Mitchell, Tim J (2010) Novel mucosal vaccines generated by genetic conjugation of heterologous proteins to pneumolysin (PLY) from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Vaccine, 28 (18). pp. 3231-3237.

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Abstract

Induction of immunity at mucosal surfaces is thought to be an essential feature in the protection of the host against the many pathogens that gain access through these surfaces. Here we describe how strong local and systemic immune responses can be generated when proteins are genetically conjugated to pneumolysin (PLY) from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Using green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and PsaA from S. pneumoniae, we have shown that genetic fusion (eGFPPLY and PsaAPLY) is essential to ensure high levels of antigen specific IgG and IgA in the serum and at mucosal surfaces. This form of vaccination is highly effective with antigen specific antibodies detected after a single dose of nanogram quantities of the conjugated proteins. In addition, generation of a non-toxic variant (eGFPDelta6PLY) indicated that while the toxic activity of PLY was not essential for adjuvanticity, it contributed to the magnitude of the response generated. Whilst vaccination with the PsaAPLY fusion proteins did not protect the animals from challenge, these studies confirm the utility of pneumolysin to act as a novel mucosal adjuvant to substantially increase the local and systemic humoral response to genetically fused protein antigens.