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Quantum optics of lossy beam splitters

Barnett, S M and Jeffers, J and Gatti, A and Loudon, R (1998) Quantum optics of lossy beam splitters. Physical Review A, 57 (3). pp. 2134-2145. ISSN 1094-1622

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The familiar input-output relations for an optical beam splitter are generalized to allow for linear absorption by the medium forming the mirror. Beam-splitter losses generally affect the noise levels detectable in experiments involving nonclassical Light. When employed to investigate two-photon interference effects, a lossy beam splitter can lead to apparent nonlinear absorption, which, in the most extreme case, leads to either both or neither of the photons being absorbed. The degree of second-order coherence of antibunched light can be maintained on transmission through the beam splitter but any amplitude squeezing in the incident light is degraded.