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Open Access research with a European policy impact...

The Strathprints institutional repository is a digital archive of University of Strathclyde's Open Access research outputs. Strathprints provides access to thousands of Open Access research papers by Strathclyde researchers, including by researchers from the European Policies Research Centre (EPRC).

EPRC is a leading institute in Europe for comparative research on public policy, with a particular focus on regional development policies. Spanning 30 European countries, EPRC research programmes have a strong emphasis on applied research and knowledge exchange, including the provision of policy advice to EU institutions and national and sub-national government authorities throughout Europe.

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Sequential expression of macrophage anti-microbial/inflammatory and wound healing markers following innate, alternative and classical activation

Menzies, F.M. and Henriquez, F.L. and Alexander, J. and Roberts, C.W. (2010) Sequential expression of macrophage anti-microbial/inflammatory and wound healing markers following innate, alternative and classical activation. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 160 (3). pp. 369-379. ISSN 0009-9104

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The present study examines the temporal dynamics of macrophage activation marker expression in response to variations in stimulation.We demonstrate that markers can be categorized as 'early' (expressed most abundantly at 6 h post-stimulation) or 'late' (expressed at 24 h post-stimulation). Thus nos2 and p40 (IL-12/IL-23) are early markers of innate and classical activation, while dectin-1 and mrc-1 are early markers and fizz1 (found in inflammatory zone-1) and ym1 are late markers of alternative activation. Furthermore, argI is a late marker of both innate and alternative activation. The ability of interferon (IFN)-g to alter these activation markers was studied at both the protein level and gene level. As reported previously, IFN-g was able to drive macrophages towards the classical phenotype by enhancing nos2 gene expression and enzyme activity and p40 (IL-12/IL-23) gene expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. IFN-g antagonized alternative macrophage activation, as evident by reduced expression of dectin-1, mrc-1, fizz1 and ym1 mRNA transcripts. In addition, IFN-g antagonized arginase activity irrespective of whether macrophages were activated innately or alternatively. Our data explain some apparent contradictions in the literature, demonstrate temporal plasticity in macrophage activation states and define for the first time 'early' and 'late' markers associated with anti-microbial/inflammatory and wound healing responses, respectively.