Sponge-associated fungi and their bioactive compounds - the Suberites case

Proksch, Peter and Ebel, Rainer and Edrada-Ebel, R.A. and Riebe, Frank and Liu, Hongbing and Diesel, Arnulf and Bayer, Mirko and Li, Xiang (2008) Sponge-associated fungi and their bioactive compounds - the Suberites case. Botanica Marina, 51 (3). pp. 209-218. ISSN 0006-8055

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Specimens of Suberites domuncula that had been cultured in aquaria for 4 weeks were analyzed for their associated fungi. A total of 81 fungal strains belonging to 20 different genera was isolated and identified by morphological and molecular methods. The most frequently isolated taxa were Cladosporium spp., Penicillium spp., Petriella sp., Phialophora spp. and Engyodontium album. Based on chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of fungal extracts, as well as on bioassay results, Aspergillus ustus, Penicillium sp., Petriella sp. and Scopulariopsis sp. were selected for in-depth analysis of their natural products. A total of 19 different fungal metabolites, including three new natural products, was isolated and structurally identified. A. ustus yielded two sesquiterpenes, a drimane derivative and deoxyuvidin, as well as a sesterterpene ophiobolin H. The drimane derivative had an ED50 value against L5178Y cells of 1.9 mu g ml(-1) in vitro. The crude extract of Petriella sp. was also strongly cytotoxic against the L5178Y cell line. The cyclic tetrapeptide WF-3161 was primarily responsible for the activity; the ED50 value was <0.1 mu g ml(-1). It was identical to the known compound WF-3161 and had been previously isolated from Petriella guttulata. In addition to WF-3161, three further natural products were obtained and unequivocally identified as new derivatives of infectopyrone by one-and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and by mass spectroscopy. Of the new compounds, only dihydroinfectopyrone was active against L5178Y cells; the ED50 value was 0.2 mu g ml(-1). Penicillium sp. yielded the largest number of metabolites. Viridicatin, viridicatol, cyclopenin and cyclopenol suppressed larval growth of the polyphagous pest insect Spodoptera littoralis when incorporated into an artificial diet at an arbitrarily chosen concentration of 237 ppm. Viridicatol was the most active compound and had an ED50 value of ca. 50 ppm. Scopulariopsis sp. yielded three metabolites, including the known acetylcholinesterase inhibitors quinolactacin A1 and A2.