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Literary linguistics: Open Access research in English language

Strathprints makes available Open Access scholarly outputs by English Studies at Strathclyde. Particular research specialisms include literary linguistics, the study of literary texts using techniques drawn from linguistics and cognitive science.

The team also demonstrates research expertise in Renaissance studies, researching Renaissance literature, the history of ideas and language and cultural history. English hosts the Centre for Literature, Culture & Place which explores literature and its relationships with geography, space, landscape, travel, architecture, and the environment.

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Translational modifications to improve vaccine efficacy in an oral influenza vaccine

Bennett, E. and Mullen, A.B. and Ferro, V.A. (2009) Translational modifications to improve vaccine efficacy in an oral influenza vaccine. Methods, 49 (4). pp. 322-327. ISSN 1046-2023

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Abstract

Oral vaccination using protein antigens is complicated by the degradative effects of the inhospitable conditions in the gastrointestinal tract, such as low pH and digestive enzymes, nescessitating protection and effective delivery of the antigen. The bilosome is a lipid-based, vesicle delivery system incorporating bile salts, which is believed to protect the antigen from degradation, and has been shown to induce significant antibody responses when delivered orally with various vaccines. In translational research, from laboratory bench to industrial scale-up, it is necessary to optimise the manufacturing process in order to improve efficiency and simplify production, giving a more economical end-product. In this study we tested two simplified production methods (3-step and 1-step) along with two different storage methods (lyophilised and non-lyophilised), as well as looking at the effect of buffer pH. The formulations were assessed in a murine system for immunogenicity, alongside characterisation in terms of size and antigen entrapment, with the stability of these aspects assessed with respect to time. Both lyophilised and non-lyophilised 3-step formulations induced significant IgG1, IgG2a and IgA titres, with the lyophilised version showing stable size and antigen entrapment up to 9 months.