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The effects of lignocaine on actions of the venom from the yellow scorpion "leiurus quinquestriatus" in vivo and in vitro

Fatani, A.J. and Harvey, A.L. and Furman, B.L. and Rowan, E.G. (2000) The effects of lignocaine on actions of the venom from the yellow scorpion "leiurus quinquestriatus" in vivo and in vitro. Toxicon, 38 (12). pp. 1787-1801. ISSN 1879-3150

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Abstract

Fatani, A.J., Harvey, A.L., Furman, B.L., and Rowan, E.G. The effects of lignocaine on actions of the venom from the yellow scorpion, Leiurus quinquestriatus, in vivo and in vitro. Toxicon, 19. Many toxins from scorpion venoms activate sodium channels, thereby enhancing neurotransmitter release. The aim of the present work was to determine if the in vivo and in vitro effects of Leiurus quinquestriatus venom (LQQ) could be ameliorated by lignocaine, a sodium channel blocker. In urethane anaesthetised rabbits, LQQ venom (0.5 mg kg−1, i.v.) caused initial hypotension and bradycardia followed by hypertension, pulmonary oedema, electrocardiographic changes indicating conduction defects, ischaemia, infarction, and then hypotension and death. Lignocaine (1 mg kg−1 i.v. bolus initially, followed by i.v. infusion of 50 μg kg−1 min−1) significantly attenuated the majority of the venom-evoked effects and reduced mortality. Addition of LQQ venom (1, 3 and 10 μg ml−1) to chick biventer cervicis, guinea pig ileum, and rat vas deferens preparations, increased the height of electrically-induced twitches, elevated resting tension, and caused autorhythmic oscillations. Lignocaine (3 × 10−4-1.2 × 10−3 M) greatly attenuated these venom-evoked actions in the three preparations. Antagonists of appropriate neurotransmitters were also tested to determine the contribution of released transmitters to LQQ effects. Atropine significantly decreased the venom-elicited effects on guinea pig ileum preparations, while prazosin and guanethidine significantly reduced the venom's actions on rat vas deferens. In chick biventer cervicis preparations, tubocurarine and hexamethonium significantly attenuated the venom-induced effects. This study supports the hypothesis that many effects of LQQ venom involve the release of neurotransmitters and may be ameliorated by treatment with lignocaine.