Preliminary pharmacological screening of Bixa orellana l. leaves

Shilpi, Jamil Ahmad and Taufiq-Ur-Rahman, Md. and Uddin, Shaikh Jamal and Shahanur Alam, Md. and Sadhu, Samir Kumar and Seidel, Veronique (2006) Preliminary pharmacological screening of Bixa orellana l. leaves. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 108 (2). pp. 264-271. ISSN 0378-8741

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Abstract

Preliminary pharmacological studies were performed on the methanol extract of Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae) leaves to investigate neuropharmacological, anticonvulsant, analgesic, antidiarrhoeal activity and effect on gastrointestinal motility. All studies were conducted in mice using doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg of body weight. In the pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis test, the extract statistically reduced the time for the onset of sleep at 500 mg/kg dose and (dose-dependently) increased the total sleeping time at 250 and 500 mg/kg dose. A statistically significant decrease in locomotor activity was observed at all doses in the open-field and hole-cross tests. In the strychnine-induced anticonvulsant test, the extract increased the average survival time of the test animals (statistically significant at 250 and 500 mg/kg). The extract significantly and dose-dependently reduced the writhing reflex in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Antidiarrhoeal activity was supported by a statistically significant decrease in the total number of stools (including wet stools) in castor oil-induced diarrhoea model. A statistically significant delay in the passage of charcoal meal was observed at 500 mg/kg in the gastrointestinal motility test. The extract was further evaluated in vitro for antioxidant and antibacterial activity. It revealed radical scavenging properties in the DPPH assay (IC50 = 22.36 μg/ml) and antibacterial activity against selected causative agents of diarrhoea and dysentery, including Shigella dysenteriae.